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The History of Ball Valve Material

November 17, 2017

The Roman ball valves were made from a bronze alloy to the ASTM B62 bronze chemistry of today. These ball valves were used in plumbing systems in homes and buildings. The valves and technological discoveries of the Roman period could disappear under those dark ages’ cloak, and it was that valve materials became a topic of interest. 

The 19th century was the age of piping and ball valves. Looking through that century’s valve catalogs shows that ball valve substance options were just these two: iron or bronze. As the century neared a conclusion, advances in irons were made such as higher-strength cast irons, also called Ferro-steels, which were developed to satisfy the power plant temperature and pressure requirements. 

Now’s ball valve material choices are like a Chinese buffet: Everything possible is on the menu. The great number of choices has grown in reaction to the requirements of consumers and their process requirements.

Steel casting capabilities were brought by Improvements in procedures to the significant ball valve manufacturers‘ plant floor. Bronze and iron still were the ball valve substances although steel ball valves were available throughout the early part of the century.

Trim Material:

The substances for ball valve trimming or “trimmings” as it had been called a century ago were limited also. Ball valve stems, seats and discs were made of brass, bronze or iron. The first improvement in materials was the introduction of aluminum-nickel metals Monel. This “Monel metal,” as it was called, was very useful since it was harder than anything yet available and also exceptionally corrosion resistant. 

Century ball valve makers are still utilizing the metals of the past 150 decades, but materials are constantly under development. Alloy steels made their debut throughout the decade after WWII as ball valve substances. The chrome/moly steels helped to raise the operating temperatures of cast steel ball valves above the 1000° F (538° C) array; 1-1/4 Cr. (WC9), 5 Cr. (C12) were all developed in this time. The ASTM standard to address these substances was ASTM A157, Alloy Steel Castings for ball valves, Flanges and Fittings for High-Temperature Service, which was issued in 1950. ASTM A217 would later supersede this standard. These alloys also are made by most. 

The ball valve-trim material was 400 series stainless steel, Martensitic. These alloys were durable due to their ability to be heat-treated into an extremely hard condition. The 400 series stainless steels, by virtue of their 11-13% chrome content, also were corrosion resistant, and they’d be the trimming material of choice to 30-40 years before supplanted by cobalt-based “Stellite” substances after World War II. 

Making mold for Iron material Valve

Since the temperatures and pressures increased in the 1920s and 1930s in the power industry, a need arose for higher performance cast steel. The carbon-moly steel alloy was a stopgap that increased the constant operating temperature of steel ball valves to 850° F(454° C). It suffered from creep issues even though the carbon-moly steel has been useful at higher temperatures. The pre-WWII period also saw the introduction of the first austenitic stainless-steel alloys (304ss and 316ss), which have been vastly superior to the 400 series in corrosion resistance. 

Throughout the 1950-1960 time period procedures in the chemical sector outstripped the capability of stainless steels to cope with corrosion problems. As a result, higher levels of stainless steels were developed and tried. Metal 20, stabilized stainless steels (347 & 321) and also low-carbon grades (316L and 304L) became popular. On the other hand, the ability of the metals to carry out would soon be surpassed by the requirements of business again. New “superalloys” were developed to fulfill those requirements, including the Hastelloys, Inconel, and duplex stainless steels. These materials were very powerful and also had corrosion resistance that is impressive.

Packing Material:

Applications, Teflon is a great material. For low-temperature Elements such as ball valve seats. The history of ball valve seats and Teflon As immediate replacement substances didn’t do the job well gaskets took some time. Finally, the sector perfected products which have now become the standard for almost 25 years after packing and gasket materials are needed.


Is itself a fascinating tale but that tale is for another article. The long fibers of asbestos blended That move-out and in of the pressure envelope require a packaging to maintain the pressure. These packings must be flexible, reasonably able and resilient to withstand the temperature the ball valve will see in service. Packaging materials were rope derivatives like flax and jute. However, as managing temperatures climbed, these substances proved insufficient. The answer was discovered in a special mineral known as Chrysotile, which gave us asbestos.


Teflon packing and gaskets are typical in today’s nickel alloy and Using its temperature resistance made it an outstanding packing and material. Asbestos packaging was set up in all commodity steel ball valves in the 1920s. The material was superior for filling and forming the packing or stuffing box region, and it provided an excellent seal. A number of the very same features that made asbestos great packaging, like its fiber shape and size made it a resident of the lung. They all have been drawn to lawsuits involving asbestos litigation and mesothelioma since every ball valve maker used asbestos packings or gaskets.


Stainless-steel valves. Teflon is also used for additional Ball valves that have stems or shafts The replacement of asbestos packaging

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